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The Clean Air Act And The Basis for Regulation of Greenhouse Gases--Footnotes

Part 1
Part 2

 


 

[1] P.L. 91-604, 84 Stat. 1676.

[2] Clean Air Amendments of 1977, P.L. 95-95, 91 Stat. 685; Clean Air Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399.

[3] 42 USC §7401(b)(1).

[4]42 USC §7602(g).

[5]42 USC §7602: "When used in this chapter...." The chapter referenced is Chapter 85 of Title 42 of the United States Code, which is the CAA.

[6] Other titles include: Title III, General Provisions; Title IV, Noise Pollution; Title IV-A, Acid Deposition Control; and Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection.

[7] 42 USC §7409(a)(1).

[8]See 40 CFR Part 50.

[9]42 USC §7409(b)(1).

[10]42 USC §7409(b)(2).

[11] 42 USC §7411(b)(A).

[12]42 USC §7411(a)(3).

[13]42 USC §7411(b)(B).

[14]§7411(d). 42 USC

[15] 42 USC §7411(e).

[16] 42 USC §7412(b).

[17] 42 USC §7412(d).

[18] 42 USC §7410(a)(1).

[19] 42 USC §7411(c).

[20] 42 USC §7410(a)(2).

[21] The statutory and regulatory requirement for non-attainment areas are not directly relevant to this issue and will not be detailed herein.

[22]42 USC §§7470 - 7479.

[23]42 USC §7475(a).

[24]42 USC §7479(1).

[25] See, e.g., 40 CFR 52.21(b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(40).

[26]See 42 USC §7475(a): "No major emitting facility ... may be constructed in any area to which this part applies."

[27]42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[28]42 USC §7479(3).

[29]75 Fed. Reg. 31551 (June 3, 2010).

[30]42 USC §§7661(2) and 7602(j).

[31]42 USC §7521(a)(1).

[32] Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 US 497, 127 S.Ct 1438 (2007)

[33] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1449.

[34] Id.

[35] Id.

[36] See 68 Fed. Reg. 52925 (September 8, 2003).

[37] Id.

[38] Id.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1446.

[42] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1447.

[43] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1459.

[44] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[45] 42 USC 7602(g); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460 (emphasis in original).

[46] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[47] Id.

[48] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ pp. 1460-1.

[49] Brown v. Williamson Tobacco Corp., 529 U.S. 120, 120 S.Ct. (2000); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1461.

[50] Id.

[51] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[52] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[53] Id.

[54] Id.

[55] Id.

[56] Id.

[57] Id.

[58] Id.

[59] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1463.

[60] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009). The ANPR may be found at 73 Fed. Reg. 44354 (July 30, 2008).

[61] Id.

[62] 74 Fed. Reg. 18886 (April 24, 2009); 74 Fed. Reg. 66496 (December 15, 2009).

[63] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[64] Timing Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010); Tailoring Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 31514 (June 3, 2010).

[65] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009).

[66] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[67] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[68] Id.

[69] Id.

[70] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009). Together, the six gas are referred to as CO2e.

[71] 74 Fed. Reg. 66517 (December 15, 2009).

[72] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[73] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[74] Id.

[75] Ethyl Corporation v. EPA, 541 F.2d 1 (D.C. Circuit, 1976)

[76] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 11.

[77] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 13.

[78] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[79] 42 USC §7602(h); 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[80] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009), citing Whitman v. American Trucking Association, 531 U.S. 457, 466 (2001).

[81] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[82] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009).

[83] 74 Fed. Reg. 66524 (December 15, 2009).

[84] 74 Fed. Reg. 66531 (December 15, 2009).

[85] 74 Fed. Reg. 66508 (December 15, 2009).

[86] Id.

[87] Id.

[88] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009), citing 42 USC §7602(g).

[89] 74 Fed. Reg. 66536 (December 15, 2009).

[90] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009).

[91] Id.

[92] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[93] 75 Fed. Reg. 25328 (May 7, 2010).

[94] 40 CFR 52.21(b)(50)(iv) (2008). This provision was later amended by Tailoring Rule, which added a definition of 'subject to regulation.'

[95] 42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[96] 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010).

[97]EPA's Interpretation of Regulations that Determine Pollutants Covered by Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit Program, December 18, 2008 (PSD Interpretive Memo); 73 Fed. Reg. 80300 (December 31, 2008); 75 Fed. Reg. 17005-17006 (April 2, 2010).

[98] 75 Fed. Reg. 17007 (April 2, 2010).

[99] Id.

[100] PSD Interpretive Memo, p. 11.

[101] Id.

[102] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[103] PSD Interpretative Memo, p. 14; 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[104] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[105] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[106] Id.

[107] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010); 42 USC §7522(a)(1).

[108] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[109] Id.

[110] Id.

[111] 75 Fed. Reg. 31516 (June 3, 2010).

[112] Id.

[113] Id.

[114] 75 Fed. Reg. 31520 (June 3, 2010); 42 USC §7479(1).

[115] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[116] 75 Fed. Reg. 31534 (June 3, 2010).

[117] 75 Fed. Reg. 31535-31536 (June 3, 2010).

[118] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[119] 75 Fed. Reg. 31522 (June 3, 2010).

[120] Id.

[121] 75 Fed. Reg. 31523 (June 3, 2010).

[122] Id.

[123] Id.

[124] Id.

[125] Id.

[126] Id.

[127] Id.

[128] Id.

[129] Id.

[130] 75 Fed. Reg. 31524 (June 3, 2010).

[131] Id.

[132] Id.

[133] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533, 31541 (June 3, 2010).

[134] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[135] Id.

[136] Id.

[137] Id.

[138] Chevron USA, Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984).

[139] 75 Fed. Reg. 31543 (June 3, 2010). .

[140] Id., citing United States v. Ron Pair Enterprises, 489 U.S. 235 (1989).

[141] 75 Fed. Reg. 31555 (June 3, 2010).

[142] 75 Fed. Reg. 31577 (June 3, 2010).

[143] 75 Fed. Reg. 31578 (June 3, 2010).

[144] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[145] 75 Fed. Reg. 31549 (June 3, 2010).

[146] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[147] Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc. v. Environmental Protection Agency, 684 F.3d 102 (D.C. Cir. 2012).

[148] 134 S.Ct 418-419 and 468 (October 15, 2013).

[149] Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA, --- U.S. ---, 134 S.Ct 2427 (2014).

[150] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2438.

[151] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2439.

[152] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2440.

[153]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2441.

[154] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2442.

[155] Id.

[156] Id.

[157] Id.

[158]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2443.

[159]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2444.

[160]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2445.

[161] Id.

[162]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448, citing 42 USC 7475(a)(4).

[163]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448.

[164]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2449.

[165] Id.

[166] Id.

[167] 74 Fed. Reg. 56260 (October 30, 2009): Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; 40 CFR Part 98.

[168] P.L.110-161, 121 Stat. 1844.

[169] 74 Fed. Reg. 56265 (October 30, 2009), citing 42 USC §§7414(a)(1) and 7542.

[170] 74 Fed. Reg. 56267 (October 30, 2009).

[171] 77 Fed. Reg. 62624 (October 15, 2012).

[172] 76 Fed. Reg. 57106 (September 15, 2011).

[173] P.L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 594; 42 USC §7545(o), (o)(2).

[174] 72 Fed. Reg. 23900 (May 1, 2007).

[175] P.L. 110-140, 121 Stat. 1492.

[176] 75 Fed. Reg. 14670 (March 26, 2010).

[177] 75 Fed. Reg. 14798 (March 26, 2010).

[178] 77 Fed. Reg. 49490 (August 16, 2012). Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews.

[179] 42 USC §7411(b).

[180] 42 USC §7412.

[181] 77 Fed. Reg. 49492, 49533 (August 16, 2012). Methane has a global warming potential of 25, which means that this reduction totals about 25 million tons of CO2e. 40 CFR Part 98, Table A-1 to Subpart A.

[182] New Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014); Existing Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 34830 (June 18, 2014) and 79 Fed. Reg. 34960 (June 18, 2014).

[183] 42 USC §7411(b).

[184] 42 USC §7411(a)(1).

[185] 77 Fed. Reg. 22392 (April 13, 2012).

[186] 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014).

[187] 79 Fed. Reg. 1432-1433 (January 8, 2014).

[188] 79 Fed. Reg. 1433 (January 8, 2014).

[189] Id.

[190] 79 Fed. Reg. 1434-1435 (January 8, 2014).

[191] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435 (January 8, 2014).

[192] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[193] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[194] 42 USC §7411(d)(1).

[195] 42 USC §7411(d)(2).

[196] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[197] 79 Fed. Reg. 34833, 34957-34958 (June 18, 2014).

[198] Id.

[199] Id.

[200] 79 Fed. Reg. 34835 (June 18, 2014).

[201] 79 Fed. Reg. 34856 (June 18, 2014).

[202] 79 Fed. Reg. 1495 (January 8, 2014).

[203] Id.

[204] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[205] The President's Climate Action Plan, June, 2013, p. 4.

[206] McCarthy, Regina, Opening Statement of Regina McCarthy Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 29, 2012, at pp. 1 - 2.

The Clean Air Act And The Basis for Regulation of Greenhouse Gases--Footnotes

Part 1
Part 2

 


 

[1] P.L. 91-604, 84 Stat. 1676.

[2] Clean Air Amendments of 1977, P.L. 95-95, 91 Stat. 685; Clean Air Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399.

[3] 42 USC §7401(b)(1).

[4]42 USC §7602(g).

[5]42 USC §7602: "When used in this chapter...." The chapter referenced is Chapter 85 of Title 42 of the United States Code, which is the CAA.

[6] Other titles include: Title III, General Provisions; Title IV, Noise Pollution; Title IV-A, Acid Deposition Control; and Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection.

[7] 42 USC §7409(a)(1).

[8]See 40 CFR Part 50.

[9]42 USC §7409(b)(1).

[10]42 USC §7409(b)(2).

[11] 42 USC §7411(b)(A).

[12]42 USC §7411(a)(3).

[13]42 USC §7411(b)(B).

[14]§7411(d). 42 USC

[15] 42 USC §7411(e).

[16] 42 USC §7412(b).

[17] 42 USC §7412(d).

[18] 42 USC §7410(a)(1).

[19] 42 USC §7411(c).

[20] 42 USC §7410(a)(2).

[21] The statutory and regulatory requirement for non-attainment areas are not directly relevant to this issue and will not be detailed herein.

[22]42 USC §§7470 - 7479.

[23]42 USC §7475(a).

[24]42 USC §7479(1).

[25] See, e.g., 40 CFR 52.21(b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(40).

[26]See 42 USC §7475(a): "No major emitting facility ... may be constructed in any area to which this part applies."

[27]42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[28]42 USC §7479(3).

[29]75 Fed. Reg. 31551 (June 3, 2010).

[30]42 USC §§7661(2) and 7602(j).

[31]42 USC §7521(a)(1).

[32] Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 US 497, 127 S.Ct 1438 (2007)

[33] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1449.

[34] Id.

[35] Id.

[36] See 68 Fed. Reg. 52925 (September 8, 2003).

[37] Id.

[38] Id.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1446.

[42] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1447.

[43] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1459.

[44] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[45] 42 USC 7602(g); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460 (emphasis in original).

[46] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[47] Id.

[48] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ pp. 1460-1.

[49] Brown v. Williamson Tobacco Corp., 529 U.S. 120, 120 S.Ct. (2000); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1461.

[50] Id.

[51] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[52] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[53] Id.

[54] Id.

[55] Id.

[56] Id.

[57] Id.

[58] Id.

[59] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1463.

[60] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009). The ANPR may be found at 73 Fed. Reg. 44354 (July 30, 2008).

[61] Id.

[62] 74 Fed. Reg. 18886 (April 24, 2009); 74 Fed. Reg. 66496 (December 15, 2009).

[63] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[64] Timing Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010); Tailoring Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 31514 (June 3, 2010).

[65] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009).

[66] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[67] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[68] Id.

[69] Id.

[70] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009). Together, the six gas are referred to as CO2e.

[71] 74 Fed. Reg. 66517 (December 15, 2009).

[72] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[73] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[74] Id.

[75] Ethyl Corporation v. EPA, 541 F.2d 1 (D.C. Circuit, 1976)

[76] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 11.

[77] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 13.

[78] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[79] 42 USC §7602(h); 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[80] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009), citing Whitman v. American Trucking Association, 531 U.S. 457, 466 (2001).

[81] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[82] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009).

[83] 74 Fed. Reg. 66524 (December 15, 2009).

[84] 74 Fed. Reg. 66531 (December 15, 2009).

[85] 74 Fed. Reg. 66508 (December 15, 2009).

[86] Id.

[87] Id.

[88] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009), citing 42 USC §7602(g).

[89] 74 Fed. Reg. 66536 (December 15, 2009).

[90] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009).

[91] Id.

[92] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[93] 75 Fed. Reg. 25328 (May 7, 2010).

[94] 40 CFR 52.21(b)(50)(iv) (2008). This provision was later amended by Tailoring Rule, which added a definition of 'subject to regulation.'

[95] 42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[96] 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010).

[97]EPA's Interpretation of Regulations that Determine Pollutants Covered by Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit Program, December 18, 2008 (PSD Interpretive Memo); 73 Fed. Reg. 80300 (December 31, 2008); 75 Fed. Reg. 17005-17006 (April 2, 2010).

[98] 75 Fed. Reg. 17007 (April 2, 2010).

[99] Id.

[100] PSD Interpretive Memo, p. 11.

[101] Id.

[102] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[103] PSD Interpretative Memo, p. 14; 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[104] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[105] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[106] Id.

[107] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010); 42 USC §7522(a)(1).

[108] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[109] Id.

[110] Id.

[111] 75 Fed. Reg. 31516 (June 3, 2010).

[112] Id.

[113] Id.

[114] 75 Fed. Reg. 31520 (June 3, 2010); 42 USC §7479(1).

[115] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[116] 75 Fed. Reg. 31534 (June 3, 2010).

[117] 75 Fed. Reg. 31535-31536 (June 3, 2010).

[118] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[119] 75 Fed. Reg. 31522 (June 3, 2010).

[120] Id.

[121] 75 Fed. Reg. 31523 (June 3, 2010).

[122] Id.

[123] Id.

[124] Id.

[125] Id.

[126] Id.

[127] Id.

[128] Id.

[129] Id.

[130] 75 Fed. Reg. 31524 (June 3, 2010).

[131] Id.

[132] Id.

[133] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533, 31541 (June 3, 2010).

[134] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[135] Id.

[136] Id.

[137] Id.

[138] Chevron USA, Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984).

[139] 75 Fed. Reg. 31543 (June 3, 2010). .

[140] Id., citing United States v. Ron Pair Enterprises, 489 U.S. 235 (1989).

[141] 75 Fed. Reg. 31555 (June 3, 2010).

[142] 75 Fed. Reg. 31577 (June 3, 2010).

[143] 75 Fed. Reg. 31578 (June 3, 2010).

[144] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[145] 75 Fed. Reg. 31549 (June 3, 2010).

[146] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[147] Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc. v. Environmental Protection Agency, 684 F.3d 102 (D.C. Cir. 2012).

[148] 134 S.Ct 418-419 and 468 (October 15, 2013).

[149] Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA, --- U.S. ---, 134 S.Ct 2427 (2014).

[150] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2438.

[151] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2439.

[152] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2440.

[153]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2441.

[154] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2442.

[155] Id.

[156] Id.

[157] Id.

[158]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2443.

[159]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2444.

[160]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2445.

[161] Id.

[162]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448, citing 42 USC 7475(a)(4).

[163]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448.

[164]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2449.

[165] Id.

[166] Id.

[167] 74 Fed. Reg. 56260 (October 30, 2009): Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; 40 CFR Part 98.

[168] P.L.110-161, 121 Stat. 1844.

[169] 74 Fed. Reg. 56265 (October 30, 2009), citing 42 USC §§7414(a)(1) and 7542.

[170] 74 Fed. Reg. 56267 (October 30, 2009).

[171] 77 Fed. Reg. 62624 (October 15, 2012).

[172] 76 Fed. Reg. 57106 (September 15, 2011).

[173] P.L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 594; 42 USC §7545(o), (o)(2).

[174] 72 Fed. Reg. 23900 (May 1, 2007).

[175] P.L. 110-140, 121 Stat. 1492.

[176] 75 Fed. Reg. 14670 (March 26, 2010).

[177] 75 Fed. Reg. 14798 (March 26, 2010).

[178] 77 Fed. Reg. 49490 (August 16, 2012). Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews.

[179] 42 USC §7411(b).

[180] 42 USC §7412.

[181] 77 Fed. Reg. 49492, 49533 (August 16, 2012). Methane has a global warming potential of 25, which means that this reduction totals about 25 million tons of CO2e. 40 CFR Part 98, Table A-1 to Subpart A.

[182] New Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014); Existing Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 34830 (June 18, 2014) and 79 Fed. Reg. 34960 (June 18, 2014).

[183] 42 USC §7411(b).

[184] 42 USC §7411(a)(1).

[185] 77 Fed. Reg. 22392 (April 13, 2012).

[186] 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014).

[187] 79 Fed. Reg. 1432-1433 (January 8, 2014).

[188] 79 Fed. Reg. 1433 (January 8, 2014).

[189] Id.

[190] 79 Fed. Reg. 1434-1435 (January 8, 2014).

[191] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435 (January 8, 2014).

[192] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[193] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[194] 42 USC §7411(d)(1).

[195] 42 USC §7411(d)(2).

[196] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[197] 79 Fed. Reg. 34833, 34957-34958 (June 18, 2014).

[198] Id.

[199] Id.

[200] 79 Fed. Reg. 34835 (June 18, 2014).

[201] 79 Fed. Reg. 34856 (June 18, 2014).

[202] 79 Fed. Reg. 1495 (January 8, 2014).

[203] Id.

[204] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[205] The President's Climate Action Plan, June, 2013, p. 4.

[206] McCarthy, Regina, Opening Statement of Regina McCarthy Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 29, 2012, at pp. 1 - 2.

The Clean Air Act And The Basis for Regulation of Greenhouse Gases--Footnotes

Part 1
Part 2

 


 

[1] P.L. 91-604, 84 Stat. 1676.

[2] Clean Air Amendments of 1977, P.L. 95-95, 91 Stat. 685; Clean Air Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399.

[3] 42 USC §7401(b)(1).

[4]42 USC §7602(g).

[5]42 USC §7602: "When used in this chapter...." The chapter referenced is Chapter 85 of Title 42 of the United States Code, which is the CAA.

[6] Other titles include: Title III, General Provisions; Title IV, Noise Pollution; Title IV-A, Acid Deposition Control; and Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection.

[7] 42 USC §7409(a)(1).

[8]See 40 CFR Part 50.

[9]42 USC §7409(b)(1).

[10]42 USC §7409(b)(2).

[11] 42 USC §7411(b)(A).

[12]42 USC §7411(a)(3).

[13]42 USC §7411(b)(B).

[14]§7411(d). 42 USC

[15] 42 USC §7411(e).

[16] 42 USC §7412(b).

[17] 42 USC §7412(d).

[18] 42 USC §7410(a)(1).

[19] 42 USC §7411(c).

[20] 42 USC §7410(a)(2).

[21] The statutory and regulatory requirement for non-attainment areas are not directly relevant to this issue and will not be detailed herein.

[22]42 USC §§7470 - 7479.

[23]42 USC §7475(a).

[24]42 USC §7479(1).

[25] See, e.g., 40 CFR 52.21(b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(40).

[26]See 42 USC §7475(a): "No major emitting facility ... may be constructed in any area to which this part applies."

[27]42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[28]42 USC §7479(3).

[29]75 Fed. Reg. 31551 (June 3, 2010).

[30]42 USC §§7661(2) and 7602(j).

[31]42 USC §7521(a)(1).

[32] Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 US 497, 127 S.Ct 1438 (2007)

[33] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1449.

[34] Id.

[35] Id.

[36] See 68 Fed. Reg. 52925 (September 8, 2003).

[37] Id.

[38] Id.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1446.

[42] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1447.

[43] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1459.

[44] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[45] 42 USC 7602(g); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460 (emphasis in original).

[46] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[47] Id.

[48] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ pp. 1460-1.

[49] Brown v. Williamson Tobacco Corp., 529 U.S. 120, 120 S.Ct. (2000); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1461.

[50] Id.

[51] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[52] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[53] Id.

[54] Id.

[55] Id.

[56] Id.

[57] Id.

[58] Id.

[59] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1463.

[60] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009). The ANPR may be found at 73 Fed. Reg. 44354 (July 30, 2008).

[61] Id.

[62] 74 Fed. Reg. 18886 (April 24, 2009); 74 Fed. Reg. 66496 (December 15, 2009).

[63] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[64] Timing Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010); Tailoring Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 31514 (June 3, 2010).

[65] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009).

[66] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[67] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[68] Id.

[69] Id.

[70] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009). Together, the six gas are referred to as CO2e.

[71] 74 Fed. Reg. 66517 (December 15, 2009).

[72] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[73] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[74] Id.

[75] Ethyl Corporation v. EPA, 541 F.2d 1 (D.C. Circuit, 1976)

[76] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 11.

[77] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 13.

[78] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[79] 42 USC §7602(h); 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[80] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009), citing Whitman v. American Trucking Association, 531 U.S. 457, 466 (2001).

[81] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[82] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009).

[83] 74 Fed. Reg. 66524 (December 15, 2009).

[84] 74 Fed. Reg. 66531 (December 15, 2009).

[85] 74 Fed. Reg. 66508 (December 15, 2009).

[86] Id.

[87] Id.

[88] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009), citing 42 USC §7602(g).

[89] 74 Fed. Reg. 66536 (December 15, 2009).

[90] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009).

[91] Id.

[92] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[93] 75 Fed. Reg. 25328 (May 7, 2010).

[94] 40 CFR 52.21(b)(50)(iv) (2008). This provision was later amended by Tailoring Rule, which added a definition of 'subject to regulation.'

[95] 42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[96] 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010).

[97]EPA's Interpretation of Regulations that Determine Pollutants Covered by Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit Program, December 18, 2008 (PSD Interpretive Memo); 73 Fed. Reg. 80300 (December 31, 2008); 75 Fed. Reg. 17005-17006 (April 2, 2010).

[98] 75 Fed. Reg. 17007 (April 2, 2010).

[99] Id.

[100] PSD Interpretive Memo, p. 11.

[101] Id.

[102] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[103] PSD Interpretative Memo, p. 14; 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[104] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[105] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[106] Id.

[107] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010); 42 USC §7522(a)(1).

[108] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[109] Id.

[110] Id.

[111] 75 Fed. Reg. 31516 (June 3, 2010).

[112] Id.

[113] Id.

[114] 75 Fed. Reg. 31520 (June 3, 2010); 42 USC §7479(1).

[115] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[116] 75 Fed. Reg. 31534 (June 3, 2010).

[117] 75 Fed. Reg. 31535-31536 (June 3, 2010).

[118] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[119] 75 Fed. Reg. 31522 (June 3, 2010).

[120] Id.

[121] 75 Fed. Reg. 31523 (June 3, 2010).

[122] Id.

[123] Id.

[124] Id.

[125] Id.

[126] Id.

[127] Id.

[128] Id.

[129] Id.

[130] 75 Fed. Reg. 31524 (June 3, 2010).

[131] Id.

[132] Id.

[133] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533, 31541 (June 3, 2010).

[134] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[135] Id.

[136] Id.

[137] Id.

[138] Chevron USA, Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984).

[139] 75 Fed. Reg. 31543 (June 3, 2010). .

[140] Id., citing United States v. Ron Pair Enterprises, 489 U.S. 235 (1989).

[141] 75 Fed. Reg. 31555 (June 3, 2010).

[142] 75 Fed. Reg. 31577 (June 3, 2010).

[143] 75 Fed. Reg. 31578 (June 3, 2010).

[144] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[145] 75 Fed. Reg. 31549 (June 3, 2010).

[146] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[147] Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc. v. Environmental Protection Agency, 684 F.3d 102 (D.C. Cir. 2012).

[148] 134 S.Ct 418-419 and 468 (October 15, 2013).

[149] Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA, --- U.S. ---, 134 S.Ct 2427 (2014).

[150] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2438.

[151] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2439.

[152] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2440.

[153]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2441.

[154] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2442.

[155] Id.

[156] Id.

[157] Id.

[158]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2443.

[159]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2444.

[160]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2445.

[161] Id.

[162]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448, citing 42 USC 7475(a)(4).

[163]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448.

[164]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2449.

[165] Id.

[166] Id.

[167] 74 Fed. Reg. 56260 (October 30, 2009): Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; 40 CFR Part 98.

[168] P.L.110-161, 121 Stat. 1844.

[169] 74 Fed. Reg. 56265 (October 30, 2009), citing 42 USC §§7414(a)(1) and 7542.

[170] 74 Fed. Reg. 56267 (October 30, 2009).

[171] 77 Fed. Reg. 62624 (October 15, 2012).

[172] 76 Fed. Reg. 57106 (September 15, 2011).

[173] P.L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 594; 42 USC §7545(o), (o)(2).

[174] 72 Fed. Reg. 23900 (May 1, 2007).

[175] P.L. 110-140, 121 Stat. 1492.

[176] 75 Fed. Reg. 14670 (March 26, 2010).

[177] 75 Fed. Reg. 14798 (March 26, 2010).

[178] 77 Fed. Reg. 49490 (August 16, 2012). Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews.

[179] 42 USC §7411(b).

[180] 42 USC §7412.

[181] 77 Fed. Reg. 49492, 49533 (August 16, 2012). Methane has a global warming potential of 25, which means that this reduction totals about 25 million tons of CO2e. 40 CFR Part 98, Table A-1 to Subpart A.

[182] New Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014); Existing Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 34830 (June 18, 2014) and 79 Fed. Reg. 34960 (June 18, 2014).

[183] 42 USC §7411(b).

[184] 42 USC §7411(a)(1).

[185] 77 Fed. Reg. 22392 (April 13, 2012).

[186] 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014).

[187] 79 Fed. Reg. 1432-1433 (January 8, 2014).

[188] 79 Fed. Reg. 1433 (January 8, 2014).

[189] Id.

[190] 79 Fed. Reg. 1434-1435 (January 8, 2014).

[191] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435 (January 8, 2014).

[192] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[193] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[194] 42 USC §7411(d)(1).

[195] 42 USC §7411(d)(2).

[196] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[197] 79 Fed. Reg. 34833, 34957-34958 (June 18, 2014).

[198] Id.

[199] Id.

[200] 79 Fed. Reg. 34835 (June 18, 2014).

[201] 79 Fed. Reg. 34856 (June 18, 2014).

[202] 79 Fed. Reg. 1495 (January 8, 2014).

[203] Id.

[204] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[205] The President's Climate Action Plan, June, 2013, p. 4.

[206] McCarthy, Regina, Opening Statement of Regina McCarthy Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 29, 2012, at pp. 1 - 2.

The Clean Air Act And The Basis for Regulation of Greenhouse Gases--Footnotes

Part 1
Part 2

 


 

[1] P.L. 91-604, 84 Stat. 1676.

[2] Clean Air Amendments of 1977, P.L. 95-95, 91 Stat. 685; Clean Air Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399.

[3] 42 USC §7401(b)(1).

[4]42 USC §7602(g).

[5]42 USC §7602: "When used in this chapter...." The chapter referenced is Chapter 85 of Title 42 of the United States Code, which is the CAA.

[6] Other titles include: Title III, General Provisions; Title IV, Noise Pollution; Title IV-A, Acid Deposition Control; and Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection.

[7] 42 USC §7409(a)(1).

[8]See 40 CFR Part 50.

[9]42 USC §7409(b)(1).

[10]42 USC §7409(b)(2).

[11] 42 USC §7411(b)(A).

[12]42 USC §7411(a)(3).

[13]42 USC §7411(b)(B).

[14]§7411(d). 42 USC

[15] 42 USC §7411(e).

[16] 42 USC §7412(b).

[17] 42 USC §7412(d).

[18] 42 USC §7410(a)(1).

[19] 42 USC §7411(c).

[20] 42 USC §7410(a)(2).

[21] The statutory and regulatory requirement for non-attainment areas are not directly relevant to this issue and will not be detailed herein.

[22]42 USC §§7470 - 7479.

[23]42 USC §7475(a).

[24]42 USC §7479(1).

[25] See, e.g., 40 CFR 52.21(b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(40).

[26]See 42 USC §7475(a): "No major emitting facility ... may be constructed in any area to which this part applies."

[27]42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[28]42 USC §7479(3).

[29]75 Fed. Reg. 31551 (June 3, 2010).

[30]42 USC §§7661(2) and 7602(j).

[31]42 USC §7521(a)(1).

[32] Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 US 497, 127 S.Ct 1438 (2007)

[33] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1449.

[34] Id.

[35] Id.

[36] See 68 Fed. Reg. 52925 (September 8, 2003).

[37] Id.

[38] Id.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1446.

[42] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1447.

[43] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1459.

[44] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[45] 42 USC 7602(g); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460 (emphasis in original).

[46] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[47] Id.

[48] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ pp. 1460-1.

[49] Brown v. Williamson Tobacco Corp., 529 U.S. 120, 120 S.Ct. (2000); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1461.

[50] Id.

[51] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[52] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[53] Id.

[54] Id.

[55] Id.

[56] Id.

[57] Id.

[58] Id.

[59] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1463.

[60] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009). The ANPR may be found at 73 Fed. Reg. 44354 (July 30, 2008).

[61] Id.

[62] 74 Fed. Reg. 18886 (April 24, 2009); 74 Fed. Reg. 66496 (December 15, 2009).

[63] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[64] Timing Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010); Tailoring Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 31514 (June 3, 2010).

[65] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009).

[66] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[67] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[68] Id.

[69] Id.

[70] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009). Together, the six gas are referred to as CO2e.

[71] 74 Fed. Reg. 66517 (December 15, 2009).

[72] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[73] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[74] Id.

[75] Ethyl Corporation v. EPA, 541 F.2d 1 (D.C. Circuit, 1976)

[76] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 11.

[77] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 13.

[78] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[79] 42 USC §7602(h); 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[80] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009), citing Whitman v. American Trucking Association, 531 U.S. 457, 466 (2001).

[81] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[82] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009).

[83] 74 Fed. Reg. 66524 (December 15, 2009).

[84] 74 Fed. Reg. 66531 (December 15, 2009).

[85] 74 Fed. Reg. 66508 (December 15, 2009).

[86] Id.

[87] Id.

[88] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009), citing 42 USC §7602(g).

[89] 74 Fed. Reg. 66536 (December 15, 2009).

[90] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009).

[91] Id.

[92] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[93] 75 Fed. Reg. 25328 (May 7, 2010).

[94] 40 CFR 52.21(b)(50)(iv) (2008). This provision was later amended by Tailoring Rule, which added a definition of 'subject to regulation.'

[95] 42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[96] 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010).

[97]EPA's Interpretation of Regulations that Determine Pollutants Covered by Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit Program, December 18, 2008 (PSD Interpretive Memo); 73 Fed. Reg. 80300 (December 31, 2008); 75 Fed. Reg. 17005-17006 (April 2, 2010).

[98] 75 Fed. Reg. 17007 (April 2, 2010).

[99] Id.

[100] PSD Interpretive Memo, p. 11.

[101] Id.

[102] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[103] PSD Interpretative Memo, p. 14; 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[104] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[105] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[106] Id.

[107] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010); 42 USC §7522(a)(1).

[108] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[109] Id.

[110] Id.

[111] 75 Fed. Reg. 31516 (June 3, 2010).

[112] Id.

[113] Id.

[114] 75 Fed. Reg. 31520 (June 3, 2010); 42 USC §7479(1).

[115] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[116] 75 Fed. Reg. 31534 (June 3, 2010).

[117] 75 Fed. Reg. 31535-31536 (June 3, 2010).

[118] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[119] 75 Fed. Reg. 31522 (June 3, 2010).

[120] Id.

[121] 75 Fed. Reg. 31523 (June 3, 2010).

[122] Id.

[123] Id.

[124] Id.

[125] Id.

[126] Id.

[127] Id.

[128] Id.

[129] Id.

[130] 75 Fed. Reg. 31524 (June 3, 2010).

[131] Id.

[132] Id.

[133] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533, 31541 (June 3, 2010).

[134] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[135] Id.

[136] Id.

[137] Id.

[138] Chevron USA, Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984).

[139] 75 Fed. Reg. 31543 (June 3, 2010). .

[140] Id., citing United States v. Ron Pair Enterprises, 489 U.S. 235 (1989).

[141] 75 Fed. Reg. 31555 (June 3, 2010).

[142] 75 Fed. Reg. 31577 (June 3, 2010).

[143] 75 Fed. Reg. 31578 (June 3, 2010).

[144] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[145] 75 Fed. Reg. 31549 (June 3, 2010).

[146] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[147] Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc. v. Environmental Protection Agency, 684 F.3d 102 (D.C. Cir. 2012).

[148] 134 S.Ct 418-419 and 468 (October 15, 2013).

[149] Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA, --- U.S. ---, 134 S.Ct 2427 (2014).

[150] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2438.

[151] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2439.

[152] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2440.

[153]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2441.

[154] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2442.

[155] Id.

[156] Id.

[157] Id.

[158]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2443.

[159]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2444.

[160]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2445.

[161] Id.

[162]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448, citing 42 USC 7475(a)(4).

[163]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448.

[164]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2449.

[165] Id.

[166] Id.

[167] 74 Fed. Reg. 56260 (October 30, 2009): Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; 40 CFR Part 98.

[168] P.L.110-161, 121 Stat. 1844.

[169] 74 Fed. Reg. 56265 (October 30, 2009), citing 42 USC §§7414(a)(1) and 7542.

[170] 74 Fed. Reg. 56267 (October 30, 2009).

[171] 77 Fed. Reg. 62624 (October 15, 2012).

[172] 76 Fed. Reg. 57106 (September 15, 2011).

[173] P.L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 594; 42 USC §7545(o), (o)(2).

[174] 72 Fed. Reg. 23900 (May 1, 2007).

[175] P.L. 110-140, 121 Stat. 1492.

[176] 75 Fed. Reg. 14670 (March 26, 2010).

[177] 75 Fed. Reg. 14798 (March 26, 2010).

[178] 77 Fed. Reg. 49490 (August 16, 2012). Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews.

[179] 42 USC §7411(b).

[180] 42 USC §7412.

[181] 77 Fed. Reg. 49492, 49533 (August 16, 2012). Methane has a global warming potential of 25, which means that this reduction totals about 25 million tons of CO2e. 40 CFR Part 98, Table A-1 to Subpart A.

[182] New Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014); Existing Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 34830 (June 18, 2014) and 79 Fed. Reg. 34960 (June 18, 2014).

[183] 42 USC §7411(b).

[184] 42 USC §7411(a)(1).

[185] 77 Fed. Reg. 22392 (April 13, 2012).

[186] 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014).

[187] 79 Fed. Reg. 1432-1433 (January 8, 2014).

[188] 79 Fed. Reg. 1433 (January 8, 2014).

[189] Id.

[190] 79 Fed. Reg. 1434-1435 (January 8, 2014).

[191] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435 (January 8, 2014).

[192] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[193] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[194] 42 USC §7411(d)(1).

[195] 42 USC §7411(d)(2).

[196] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[197] 79 Fed. Reg. 34833, 34957-34958 (June 18, 2014).

[198] Id.

[199] Id.

[200] 79 Fed. Reg. 34835 (June 18, 2014).

[201] 79 Fed. Reg. 34856 (June 18, 2014).

[202] 79 Fed. Reg. 1495 (January 8, 2014).

[203] Id.

[204] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[205] The President's Climate Action Plan, June, 2013, p. 4.

[206] McCarthy, Regina, Opening Statement of Regina McCarthy Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 29, 2012, at pp. 1 - 2.

The Clean Air Act And The Basis for Regulation of Greenhouse Gases--Footnotes

Part 1
Part 2

 


 

[1] P.L. 91-604, 84 Stat. 1676.

[2] Clean Air Amendments of 1977, P.L. 95-95, 91 Stat. 685; Clean Air Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399.

[3] 42 USC §7401(b)(1).

[4]42 USC §7602(g).

[5]42 USC §7602: "When used in this chapter...." The chapter referenced is Chapter 85 of Title 42 of the United States Code, which is the CAA.

[6] Other titles include: Title III, General Provisions; Title IV, Noise Pollution; Title IV-A, Acid Deposition Control; and Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection.

[7] 42 USC §7409(a)(1).

[8]See 40 CFR Part 50.

[9]42 USC §7409(b)(1).

[10]42 USC §7409(b)(2).

[11] 42 USC §7411(b)(A).

[12]42 USC §7411(a)(3).

[13]42 USC §7411(b)(B).

[14]§7411(d). 42 USC

[15] 42 USC §7411(e).

[16] 42 USC §7412(b).

[17] 42 USC §7412(d).

[18] 42 USC §7410(a)(1).

[19] 42 USC §7411(c).

[20] 42 USC §7410(a)(2).

[21] The statutory and regulatory requirement for non-attainment areas are not directly relevant to this issue and will not be detailed herein.

[22]42 USC §§7470 - 7479.

[23]42 USC §7475(a).

[24]42 USC §7479(1).

[25] See, e.g., 40 CFR 52.21(b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(40).

[26]See 42 USC §7475(a): "No major emitting facility ... may be constructed in any area to which this part applies."

[27]42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[28]42 USC §7479(3).

[29]75 Fed. Reg. 31551 (June 3, 2010).

[30]42 USC §§7661(2) and 7602(j).

[31]42 USC §7521(a)(1).

[32] Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 US 497, 127 S.Ct 1438 (2007)

[33] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1449.

[34] Id.

[35] Id.

[36] See 68 Fed. Reg. 52925 (September 8, 2003).

[37] Id.

[38] Id.

[39] Id.

[40] Id.

[41] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1446.

[42] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1447.

[43] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1459.

[44] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[45] 42 USC 7602(g); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460 (emphasis in original).

[46] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1460.

[47] Id.

[48] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ pp. 1460-1.

[49] Brown v. Williamson Tobacco Corp., 529 U.S. 120, 120 S.Ct. (2000); Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1461.

[50] Id.

[51] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[52] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1462.

[53] Id.

[54] Id.

[55] Id.

[56] Id.

[57] Id.

[58] Id.

[59] Massachusetts, 127 S.Ct @ p. 1463.

[60] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009). The ANPR may be found at 73 Fed. Reg. 44354 (July 30, 2008).

[61] Id.

[62] 74 Fed. Reg. 18886 (April 24, 2009); 74 Fed. Reg. 66496 (December 15, 2009).

[63] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[64] Timing Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010); Tailoring Rule: 75 Fed. Reg. 31514 (June 3, 2010).

[65] 74 Fed. Reg. 18890 (April 24, 2009).

[66] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[67] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[68] Id.

[69] Id.

[70] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009). Together, the six gas are referred to as CO2e.

[71] 74 Fed. Reg. 66517 (December 15, 2009).

[72] 74 Fed. Reg. 66505 (December 15, 2009).

[73] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[74] Id.

[75] Ethyl Corporation v. EPA, 541 F.2d 1 (D.C. Circuit, 1976)

[76] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 11.

[77] Ethyl Corporation, 541 F.2d at p. 13.

[78] 74 Fed. Reg. 18891 (April 24, 2009).

[79] 42 USC §7602(h); 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[80] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009), citing Whitman v. American Trucking Association, 531 U.S. 457, 466 (2001).

[81] 74 Fed. Reg. 66510 (December 15, 2009).

[82] 74 Fed. Reg. 66516 (December 15, 2009).

[83] 74 Fed. Reg. 66524 (December 15, 2009).

[84] 74 Fed. Reg. 66531 (December 15, 2009).

[85] 74 Fed. Reg. 66508 (December 15, 2009).

[86] Id.

[87] Id.

[88] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009), citing 42 USC §7602(g).

[89] 74 Fed. Reg. 66536 (December 15, 2009).

[90] 74 Fed. Reg. 66537 (December 15, 2009).

[91] Id.

[92] 75 Fed. Reg. 25324 (May 7, 2010).

[93] 75 Fed. Reg. 25328 (May 7, 2010).

[94] 40 CFR 52.21(b)(50)(iv) (2008). This provision was later amended by Tailoring Rule, which added a definition of 'subject to regulation.'

[95] 42 USC §7475(a)(4).

[96] 75 Fed. Reg. 17004 (April 2, 2010).

[97]EPA's Interpretation of Regulations that Determine Pollutants Covered by Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit Program, December 18, 2008 (PSD Interpretive Memo); 73 Fed. Reg. 80300 (December 31, 2008); 75 Fed. Reg. 17005-17006 (April 2, 2010).

[98] 75 Fed. Reg. 17007 (April 2, 2010).

[99] Id.

[100] PSD Interpretive Memo, p. 11.

[101] Id.

[102] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[103] PSD Interpretative Memo, p. 14; 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[104] 75 Fed. Reg. 17015 (April 2, 2010).

[105] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[106] Id.

[107] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010); 42 USC §7522(a)(1).

[108] 75 Fed. Reg. 17019 (April 2, 2010).

[109] Id.

[110] Id.

[111] 75 Fed. Reg. 31516 (June 3, 2010).

[112] Id.

[113] Id.

[114] 75 Fed. Reg. 31520 (June 3, 2010); 42 USC §7479(1).

[115] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[116] 75 Fed. Reg. 31534 (June 3, 2010).

[117] 75 Fed. Reg. 31535-31536 (June 3, 2010).

[118] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[119] 75 Fed. Reg. 31522 (June 3, 2010).

[120] Id.

[121] 75 Fed. Reg. 31523 (June 3, 2010).

[122] Id.

[123] Id.

[124] Id.

[125] Id.

[126] Id.

[127] Id.

[128] Id.

[129] Id.

[130] 75 Fed. Reg. 31524 (June 3, 2010).

[131] Id.

[132] Id.

[133] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533, 31541 (June 3, 2010).

[134] 75 Fed. Reg. 31533 (June 3, 2010).

[135] Id.

[136] Id.

[137] Id.

[138] Chevron USA, Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984).

[139] 75 Fed. Reg. 31543 (June 3, 2010). .

[140] Id., citing United States v. Ron Pair Enterprises, 489 U.S. 235 (1989).

[141] 75 Fed. Reg. 31555 (June 3, 2010).

[142] 75 Fed. Reg. 31577 (June 3, 2010).

[143] 75 Fed. Reg. 31578 (June 3, 2010).

[144] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[145] 75 Fed. Reg. 31549 (June 3, 2010).

[146] 75 Fed. Reg. 31548 (June 3, 2010).

[147] Coalition for Responsible Regulation Inc. v. Environmental Protection Agency, 684 F.3d 102 (D.C. Cir. 2012).

[148] 134 S.Ct 418-419 and 468 (October 15, 2013).

[149] Utility Air Regulatory Group v. EPA, --- U.S. ---, 134 S.Ct 2427 (2014).

[150] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2438.

[151] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2439.

[152] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2440.

[153]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2441.

[154] Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2442.

[155] Id.

[156] Id.

[157] Id.

[158]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2443.

[159]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2444.

[160]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2445.

[161] Id.

[162]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448, citing 42 USC 7475(a)(4).

[163]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2448.

[164]Utility Air, 134 S.Ct. at p. 2449.

[165] Id.

[166] Id.

[167] 74 Fed. Reg. 56260 (October 30, 2009): Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; 40 CFR Part 98.

[168] P.L.110-161, 121 Stat. 1844.

[169] 74 Fed. Reg. 56265 (October 30, 2009), citing 42 USC §§7414(a)(1) and 7542.

[170] 74 Fed. Reg. 56267 (October 30, 2009).

[171] 77 Fed. Reg. 62624 (October 15, 2012).

[172] 76 Fed. Reg. 57106 (September 15, 2011).

[173] P.L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 594; 42 USC §7545(o), (o)(2).

[174] 72 Fed. Reg. 23900 (May 1, 2007).

[175] P.L. 110-140, 121 Stat. 1492.

[176] 75 Fed. Reg. 14670 (March 26, 2010).

[177] 75 Fed. Reg. 14798 (March 26, 2010).

[178] 77 Fed. Reg. 49490 (August 16, 2012). Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews.

[179] 42 USC §7411(b).

[180] 42 USC §7412.

[181] 77 Fed. Reg. 49492, 49533 (August 16, 2012). Methane has a global warming potential of 25, which means that this reduction totals about 25 million tons of CO2e. 40 CFR Part 98, Table A-1 to Subpart A.

[182] New Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014); Existing Plants: 79 Fed. Reg. 34830 (June 18, 2014) and 79 Fed. Reg. 34960 (June 18, 2014).

[183] 42 USC §7411(b).

[184] 42 USC §7411(a)(1).

[185] 77 Fed. Reg. 22392 (April 13, 2012).

[186] 79 Fed. Reg. 1430 (January 8, 2014).

[187] 79 Fed. Reg. 1432-1433 (January 8, 2014).

[188] 79 Fed. Reg. 1433 (January 8, 2014).

[189] Id.

[190] 79 Fed. Reg. 1434-1435 (January 8, 2014).

[191] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435 (January 8, 2014).

[192] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[193] 79 Fed. Reg. 1435-1436 (January 8, 2014).

[194] 42 USC §7411(d)(1).

[195] 42 USC §7411(d)(2).

[196] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[197] 79 Fed. Reg. 34833, 34957-34958 (June 18, 2014).

[198] Id.

[199] Id.

[200] 79 Fed. Reg. 34835 (June 18, 2014).

[201] 79 Fed. Reg. 34856 (June 18, 2014).

[202] 79 Fed. Reg. 1495 (January 8, 2014).

[203] Id.

[204] 79 Fed. Reg. 34832 (June 18, 2014).

[205] The President's Climate Action Plan, June, 2013, p. 4.

[206] McCarthy, Regina, Opening Statement of Regina McCarthy Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 29, 2012, at pp. 1 - 2.